Sign on

SAO/NASA ADS Astronomy Abstract Service


· Find Similar Abstracts (with default settings below)
· Electronic Refereed Journal Article (HTML)
· Full Refereed Journal Article (PDF/Postscript)
· arXiv e-print (arXiv:1104.3695)
· References in the article
· Citations to the Article (90) (Citation History)
· Refereed Citations to the Article
· SIMBAD Objects (2)
· Associated Articles
· Also-Read Articles (Reads History)
·
· Translate This Page
Title:
Modelling CO emission - II. The physical characteristics that determine the X factor in Galactic molecular clouds
Authors:
Shetty, Rahul; Glover, Simon C.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Ostriker, Eve C.; Harris, Andrew I.; Klessen, Ralf S.
Affiliation:
AA(Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany), AB(Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany), AC(Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany), AD(Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA), AE(Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA), AF(Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany)
Publication:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 415, Issue 4, pp. 3253-3274. (MNRAS Homepage)
Publication Date:
08/2011
Origin:
WILEY
Astronomy Keywords:
line: profiles, stars: formation, ISM: clouds, ISM: lines and bands, ISM: molecules, ISM: structure
Abstract Copyright:
© 2011 The Authors Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2011 RAS
DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18937.x
Bibliographic Code:
2011MNRAS.415.3253S

Abstract

We investigate how the X factor, the ratio of the molecular hydrogen column density (?) to velocity-integrated CO intensity (W), is determined by the physical properties of gas in model molecular clouds (MCs). The synthetic MCs are results of magnetohydrodynamic simulations, including a treatment of chemistry. We perform radiative transfer calculations to determine the emergent CO intensity, using the large velocity gradient approximation for estimating the CO population levels. In order to understand why observations generally find cloud-averaged values of X = XGal˜ 2 × 1020 cm-2 K-1 km-1 s, we focus on a model representing a typical Milky Way MC. Using globally integrated ? and W reproduces the limited range in X found in observations and a mean value X = XGal= 2.2 × 1020 cm-2 K-1 km-1 s. However, we show that when considering limited velocity intervals, X can take on a much larger range of values due to CO line saturation. Thus, the X factor strongly depends on both the range in gas velocities and the volume densities. The temperature variations within individual MCs do not strongly affect X, as dense gas contributes most to setting the X factor. For fixed velocity and density structure, gas with higher temperatures T has higher W, yielding X ∝ T-1/2 for T ˜ 20-100 K. We demonstrate that the linewidth-size scaling relationship does not influence the X factor - only the range in velocities is important. Clouds with larger linewidths sigma, regardless of the linewidth-size relationship, have a higher W, corresponding to a lower value of X, scaling roughly as X ∝sigma-1/2. The 'mist' model, often invoked to explain a constant XGal consisting of optically thick cloudlets with well-separated velocities, does not accurately reflect the conditions in a turbulent MC. We propose that the observed cloud-averaged values of X ˜ XGal are simply a result of the limited range in ?, temperatures and velocities found in Galactic MCs - a nearly constant value of X therefore does not require any linewidth-size relationship, or that MCs are virialized objects. Since gas properties likely differ (albeit even slightly) from cloud to cloud, masses derived through a standard value of the X factor should only be considered as a rough first estimate. For temperatures T ˜ 10-20 K, velocity dispersions sigma˜ 1-6 km s-1and ? cm-2, we find cloud-averaged values X ˜ 2-4 × 1020 cm-2 K-1 km-1 s for solar-metallicity models.

Associated Articles

Part  1     Part  2    


Bibtex entry for this abstract   Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences)

  New!

Find Similar Abstracts:

Use: Authors
Title
Keywords (in text query field)
Abstract Text
Return: Query Results Return    items starting with number
Query Form
Database: Astronomy
Physics
arXiv e-prints