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Title:
Masses and radii for the three super-Earths orbiting GJ 9827, and implications for the composition of small exoplanets
Authors:
Rice, K.; Malavolta, L.; Mayo, A.; Mortier, A.; Buchhave, L. A.; Affer, L.; Vanderburg, A.; Lopez-Morales, M.; Poretti, E.; Zeng, L.; Collier Cameron, A.; Damasso, M.; Coffinet, A.; Latham, D. W.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bouchy, F.; Charbonneau, D.; Dumusque, X.; Figueira, P.; Martinez Fiorenzano, A. F.; Haywood, R. D.; Johnson, J. Asher; Lopez, E.; Lovis, C.; Mayor, M.; Micela, G.; Molinari, E.; Nascimbeni, V.; Nava, C.; Pepe, F.; Phillips, D. F.; Piotto, G.; Sasselov, D.; Ségransan, D.; Sozzetti, A.; Udry, S.; Watson, C.
Affiliation:
AA(SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH93HJ, UK; Centre for Exoplanet Science, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH93FD, UK 0000-0002-6379-9185), AB(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova, Italy; Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia `Galileo Galilei', Universita'di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova, Italy 0000-0002-6492-2085), AC(Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA), AD(Astrophysics group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK; Centre for Exoplanet Science, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY169SS, UK 0000-0001-7254-4363), AE(DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark 0000-0003-1605-5666), AF(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo, Italy), AG(SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH93HJ, UK; Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712, USA; Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA), AH(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA), AI(INAF - Fundación Galileo Galilei, Rambla José Ana Fernandez Pérez 7, E-38712 Breña Baja, Spain; INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate, Italy), AJ(Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA), AK(Centre for Exoplanet Science, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY169SS, UK 0000-0002-8863-7828), AL(INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy 0000-0001-9984-4278), AM(Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 ch. des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny, Switzerland), AN(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA), AO(INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy), AP(Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 ch. des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny, Switzerland), AQ(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA), AR(Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 ch. des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny, Switzerland), AS(European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal), AT(INAF - Fundación Galileo Galilei, Rambla José Ana Fernandez Pérez 7, E-38712 Breña Baja, Spain), AU(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA), AV(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA), AW(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA; GSFC Sellers Exoplanet Environments Collaboration, NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA), AX(Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 ch. des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny, Switzerland), AY(Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 ch. des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny, Switzerland), AZ(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo, Italy), BA(INAF - Fundación Galileo Galilei, Rambla José Ana Fernandez Pérez 7, E-38712 Breña Baja, Spain; INAF - Osservatorio di Cagliari, via della Scienza 5, I-09047 Selargius, CA, Italy), BB(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova, Italy; Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia `Galileo Galilei', Universita'di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova, Italy), BC(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA), BD(Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 ch. des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny, Switzerland), BE(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA), BF(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova, Italy; Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia `Galileo Galilei', Universita'di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova, Italy), BG(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA), BH(Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 ch. des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny, Switzerland), BI(INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy), BJ(Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 ch. des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny, Switzerland), BK(Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, UK)
Publication:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 484, Issue 3, p.3731-3745 (MNRAS Homepage)
Publication Date:
04/2019
Origin:
OUP
Astronomy Keywords:
techniques: radial velocities, planets and satellites: composition, planets and satellites: detection, planets and satellites: fundamental parameters, planets and satellites: general, Stars: individual: GJ 9827 (2MASS J23270480-0117108, EPIC 246389858, HIP 115752)
Abstract Copyright:
2019 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society
DOI:
10.1093/mnras/stz130
Bibliographic Code:
2019MNRAS.484.3731R

Abstract

Super-Earths belong to a class of planet not found in the Solar system, but which appear common in the Galaxy. Given that some super-Earths are rocky, while others retain substantial atmospheres, their study can provide clues as to the formation of both rocky and gaseous planets, and - in particular - they can help to constrain the role of photoevaporation in sculpting the exoplanet population. GJ 9827 is a system already known to host three super-Earths with orbital periods of 1.2, 3.6, and 6.2 d. Here, we use new HARPS-N radial velocity measurements, together with previously published radial velocities, to better constrain the properties of the GJ 9827 planets. Our analysis cannot place a strong constraint on the mass of GJ 9827 c, but does indicate that GJ 9827 b is rocky with a composition that is probably similar to that of the Earth, while GJ 9827 d almost certainly retains a volatile envelope. Therefore, GJ 9827 hosts planets on either side of the radius gap that appears to divide super-Earths into pre-dominantly rocky ones that have radii below ˜1.5R, and ones that still retain a substantial atmosphere and/or volatile components, and have radii above ˜2R. That the less heavily irradiated of the three planets still retains an atmosphere, may indicate that photoevaporation has played a key role in the evolution of the planets in this system.
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