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Title:
The R136 star cluster dissected with Hubble Space Telescope/STIS. I. Far-ultraviolet spectroscopic census and the origin of He II lambda1640 in young star clusters
Authors:
Crowther, Paul A.; Caballero-Nieves, S. M.; Bostroem, K. A.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Walborn, N. R.; Angus, C. R.; Brott, I.; Bonanos, A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; Gräfener, G.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I. D.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Puls, J.; Sana, H.; Vink, J. S.
Affiliation:
AA(Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH, UK ), AB(Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH, UK), AC(Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA; Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616, USA), AD(Centro de Astrobiologiá, CSIC/INTA, Campus ESAC, Apartado Postal 78, E-28 691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, Spain), AE(Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH, UK; Argelanger-Institut für Astronomie der Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn, Germany), AF(Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA), AG(Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH, UK; Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Rd, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK), AH(Institute for Astrophysics, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria), AI(Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Observatory of Athens, I. Metaxa and Vas. Pavlou St, P. Penteli 15236, Greece), AJ(Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 403, NL-1098 SJ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Institute of Astronomy, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium), AK(Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 403, NL-1098 SJ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands), AL(UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK), AM(Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG, UK), AN(Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain), AO(Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT, UK), AP(Argelanger-Institut für Astronomie der Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn, Germany), AQ(European Space Astronomy Centre, ESA, Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, Spain), AR(Uinversitäts-Sternwarte, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 München, Germany), AS(Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA; Institute of Astronomy, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium), AT(Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG, UK)
Publication:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 458, Issue 1, p.624-659 (MNRAS Homepage)
Publication Date:
05/2016
Origin:
OUP
Astronomy Keywords:
stars: early-type, stars: massive, stars: winds, outflows, Magellanic Clouds, galaxies: star clusters: individual: R136a
Abstract Copyright:
2016 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society
DOI:
10.1093/mnras/stw273
Bibliographic Code:
2016MNRAS.458..624C

Abstract

We introduce a Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) stellar census of R136a, the central ionizing star cluster of 30 Doradus. We present low resolution far-ultraviolet STIS spectroscopy of R136 using 17 contiguous 52 arcsec × 0.2 arcsec slits which together provide complete coverage of the central 0.85 parsec (3.4 arcsec). We provide spectral types of 90 per cent of the 57 sources brighter than mF555W = 16.0 mag within a radius of 0.5 parsec of R136a1, plus 8 additional nearby sources including R136b (O4 If/WN8). We measure wind velocities for 52 early-type stars from C IVlambdalambda1548-51, including 16 O2-3 stars. For the first time, we spectroscopically classify all Weigelt and Baier members of R136a, which comprise three WN5 stars (a1-a3), two O supergiants (a5-a6) and three early O dwarfs (a4, a7, a8). A complete Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for the most massive O stars in R136 is provided, from which we obtain a cluster age of 1.5^{+0.3}_{-0.7} Myr. In addition, we discuss the integrated ultraviolet spectrum of R136, and highlight the central role played by the most luminous stars in producing the prominent He II lambda1640 emission line. This emission is totally dominated by very massive stars with initial masses above ˜100 M&sun;. The presence of strong He II lambda1640 emission in the integrated light of very young star clusters (e.g. A1 in NGC 3125) favours an initial mass function extending well beyond a conventional upper limit of 100 M&sun;. We include montages of ultraviolet spectroscopy for Large Magellanic Cloud O stars in the appendix. Future studies in this series will focus on optical STIS medium resolution observations.
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