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Title:
The properties, origin and evolution of stellar clusters in galaxy simulations and observations
Authors:
Dobbs, C. L.; Adamo, A.; Few, C. G.; Calzetti, D.; Dale, D. A.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Evans, A. S.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grasha, K.; Grebel, E. K.; Johnson, K. E.; Kim, H.; Lee, J. C.; Messa, M.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Thilker, D.; Ubeda, L.; Whitmore, B.
Affiliation:
AA(School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL, UK ), AB(Department of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden), AC(School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL, UK; E.A. Milne Centre for Astrophysics, Department of Physics & Mathematics, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX, UK), AD(Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA), AE(Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie WY 82071, USA), AF(IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA), AG(Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA; National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA), AH(Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str.2, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany), AI(Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA), AJ(Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany), AK(Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA), AL(Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon, Korea; Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, AZ 85287, USA), AM(Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore MD 21218, USA), AN(Department of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden), AO(Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA), AP(Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore MD 21218, USA), AQ(Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore MD 21218, USA), AR(Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore MD 21218, USA), AS(Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore MD 21218, USA)
Publication:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 464, Issue 3, p.3580-3596 (MNRAS Homepage)
Publication Date:
01/2017
Origin:
CROSSREF; OUP
Astronomy Keywords:
stars: formation, ISM: clouds, galaxies: clusters: general
Abstract Copyright:
2016 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society
DOI:
10.1093/mnras/stw2200
Bibliographic Code:
2017MNRAS.464.3580D

Abstract

We investigate the properties and evolution of star particles in two simulations of isolated spiral galaxies, and two galaxies from cosmological simulations. Unlike previous numerical work, where typically each star particle represents one `cluster', for the isolated galaxies we are able to model features we term `clusters' with groups of particles. We compute the spatial distribution of stars with different ages, and cluster mass distributions, comparing our findings with observations including the recent LEGUS survey. We find that spiral structure tends to be present in older (100s Myr) stars and clusters in the simulations compared to the observations. This likely reflects differences in the numbers of stars or clusters, the strength of spiral arms, and whether the clusters are allowed to evolve. Where we model clusters with multiple particles, we are able to study their evolution. The evolution of simulated clusters tends to follow that of their natal gas clouds. Massive, dense, long-lived clouds host massive clusters, whilst short-lived clouds host smaller clusters which readily disperse. Most clusters appear to disperse fairly quickly, in basic agreement with observational findings. We note that embedded clusters may be less inclined to disperse in simulations in a galactic environment with continuous accretion of gas on to the clouds than isolated clouds and correspondingly, massive young clusters which are no longer associated with gas tend not to occur in the simulations. Caveats of our models include that the cluster densities are lower than realistic clusters, and the simplistic implementation of stellar feedback.
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