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Title:
Submillimetre free-free emission from the winds of massive stars in the age of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array
Authors:
Daley-Yates, S.; Stevens, I. R.; Crossland, T. D.
Affiliation:
AA(School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK ), AB(School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK), AC(School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK)
Publication:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 463, Issue 3, p.2735-2745 (MNRAS Homepage)
Publication Date:
12/2016
Origin:
CROSSREF; OUP
Astronomy Keywords:
stars: massive, stars: mass-loss, stars: winds, outflows, radio continuum: stars, submillimetre: stars
Abstract Copyright:
2016 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society
DOI:
10.1093/mnras/stw2184
Bibliographic Code:
2016MNRAS.463.2735D

Abstract

The thermal radio and submillimetre (sub-mm) emission from the winds of massive stars is investigated and the contribution to the emission due to the stellar wind acceleration region and clumping of the wind is quantified. Building upon established theory, a method for calculating the thermal radio and sub-mm emission using results for a line-driven stellar outflow according to Castor et al. is presented. The results show strong variation of the spectral index for 102 <nu < 104 GHz. This corresponds both to the wind acceleration region and clumping of the wind, leading to a strong dependence on the wind velocity law and clumping parameters. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is the first observatory to have both the spectral window and sensitivity to observe at the high frequencies required to probe the acceleration regions of massive stars. The deviations in the predicted flux levels as a result of the inclusion of the wind acceleration region and clumping are sufficient to be detected by ALMA, through deviations in the spectral index in different portions of the radio/sub-mm spectra of massive stars, for a range of reasonable mass-loss rates and distances. Consequently both mechanisms need to be included to fully understand the mass-loss rates of massive stars.
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