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Title:
Evolution and fate of very massive stars
Authors:
Yusof, Norhasliza; Hirschi, Raphael; Meynet, Georges; Crowther, Paul A.; Ekström, Sylvia; Frischknecht, Urs; Georgy, Cyril; Abu Kassim, Hasan; Schnurr, Olivier
Affiliation:
AA(Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Quantum Science Center, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Astrophysics, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, EPSAM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK; ), AB(Astrophysics, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, EPSAM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK; Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8583, Japan), AC(Geneva Observatory, Geneva University, CH-1290 Sauverny, Switzerland), AD(Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH, UK), AE(Geneva Observatory, Geneva University, CH-1290 Sauverny, Switzerland), AF(Astrophysics, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, EPSAM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK; Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland), AG(Astrophysics, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, EPSAM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK; Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 allée d'Italie, F-69384 Lyon cedex 07, France), AH(Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Quantum Science Center, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Institute of Space Science, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia), AI(Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, G-14482 Potsdam, Germany)
Publication:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 433, Issue 2, p.1114-1132 (MNRAS Homepage)
Publication Date:
08/2013
Origin:
OUP
Astronomy Keywords:
stars: evolution, stars: massive, stars: mass-loss
Abstract Copyright:
2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society
DOI:
10.1093/mnras/stt794
Bibliographic Code:
2013MNRAS.433.1114Y

Abstract

There is observational evidence that supports the existence of very massive stars (VMS) in the local universe. First, VMS (Mini ≲ 320 M&sun;) have been observed in the Large Magellanic Clouds (LMC). Secondly, there are observed supernovae (SNe) that bear the characteristics of pair creation supernovae (PCSNe, also referred to as pair instability SN) which have VMS as progenitors. The most promising candidate to date is SN 2007bi. In order to investigate the evolution and fate of nearby VMS, we calculated a new grid of models for such objects, for solar, LMC and Small Magellanic Clouds (SMC) metallicities, which covers the initial mass range from 120 to 500 M&sun;. Both rotating and non-rotating models were calculated using the GENEVA stellar evolution code and evolved until at least the end of helium burning and for most models until oxygen burning. Since VMS have very large convective cores during the main-sequence phase, their evolution is not so much affected by rotational mixing, but more by mass loss through stellar winds. Their evolution is never far from a homogeneous evolution even without rotational mixing. All the VMS, at all the metallicities studied here, end their life as WC(WO)-type Wolf-Rayet stars. Because of very important mass losses through stellar winds, these stars may have luminosities during the advanced phases of their evolution similar to stars with initial masses between 60 and 120 M&sun;. A distinctive feature which may be used to disentangle Wolf-Rayet stars originating from VMS from those originating from lower initial masses would be the enhanced abundances of Ne and Mg at the surface of WC stars. This feature is however not always apparent depending on the history of mass loss. At solar metallicity, none of our models is expected to explode as a PCSN. At the metallicity of the LMC, only stars more massive than 300 M&sun; are expected to explode as PCSNe. At the SMC metallicity, the mass range for the PCSN progenitors is much larger and comprises stars with initial masses between about 100 and 290 M&sun;. All VMS in the metallicity range studied here produce either a Type Ib SN or a Type Ic SN but not a Type II SN. We estimate that the progenitor of SN 2007bi, assuming a SMC metallicity, had an initial mass between 160 and 175 M&sun;. None of models presented in this grid produces gamma-ray bursts or magnetars. They lose too much angular momentum by mass loss or avoid the formation of a black hole by producing a completely disruptive PCSN.
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