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Effects of baryon removal on the structure of dwarf spheroidal galaxies
Arraki, Kenza S.; Klypin, Anatoly; More, Surhud; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian
AA(Astronomy Department, New Mexico State University, MSC 4500, PO Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001, USA; ), AB(Astronomy Department, New Mexico State University, MSC 4500, PO Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001, USA), AC(Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277 8583, Japan), AD(Astronomy Department, New Mexico State University, MSC 4500, PO Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001, USA)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 438, Issue 2, p.1466-1482 (MNRAS Homepage)
Publication Date:
Astronomy Keywords:
methods: numerical, galaxies: dwarf, galaxies: evolution, galaxies: haloes, cosmology: theory, dark matter
Abstract Copyright:
2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society
Bibliographic Code:


Dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) are extremely gas-poor, dark matter-dominated galaxies, which make them ideal to test the predictions of the cold dark matter (CDM) model. We argue that the removal of the baryonic component from gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies, the progenitors of dSphs, can substantially reduce their central density. Thus, it may play an important role in alleviating one of the problems of the CDM model related to the structure of relatively massive satellite galaxies of the Milky Way (MW). Traditionally, collisionless cosmological N-body simulations are used when confronting theoretical predictions with observations. However, these simulations assume that the baryon fraction everywhere in the Universe is equal to the cosmic mean, an assumption which is incorrect for dSphs. We find that the combination of (i) the lower baryon fraction in dSphs compared to the cosmic mean and (ii) the concentration of baryons in the inner part of the MW halo can go a long way towards explaining the observed circular velocity profiles of dSphs. We perform controlled numerical simulations that mimic the effects of baryons. From these we find that the blowing away of baryons by ram pressure, when the dwarfs fall into larger galaxies, decreases the circular velocity profile of the satellite and reduces the density in the central ˜200-500 pc by a factor of (1- f_b)^4≈ 0.5, where f_b is the cosmological fraction of baryons. Additionally, the enhanced baryonic mass in the central regions of the parent galaxy generates tidal forces, which are larger than those experienced by subhaloes in traditional N-body simulations. Increased tidal forces substantially alter circular velocity profiles for satellites with pericentres less than 50 kpc. We show that these two effects are strong enough to bring the predictions of subhaloes from CDM simulations into agreement with the observed structure of MW dSphs, regardless of the details of the baryonic processes.
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