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Numerical techniques for large cosmological N-body simulations
Efstathiou, G.; Davis, M.; White, S. D. M.; Frenk, C. S.
AA(Cambridge University, Cambridge, England; California, University, Santa Barbara, CA), AB(California, University, Santa Barbara and Berkeley, CA), AC(California, University, Santa Barbara and Berkeley, CA), AD(California, University, Santa Barbara and Berkeley, CA; Sussex, University, Brighton, England)
Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (ISSN 0067-0049), vol. 57, Feb. 1985, p. 241-260. Research supported by Cambridge University, Science and Engineering Research Council of England, and NASA. (ApJS Homepage)
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NASA/STI Keywords:
Computerized Simulation, Cosmology, Galactic Clusters, Gravitational Effects, Many Body Problem, Algorithms, Codes, Equations Of Motion, Particle Trajectories, Universe
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Techniques for carrying out large N-body simulations of the gravitational evolution of clustering in the fundamental cube of an infinite periodic universe are described and compared. The accuracy of the forces derived from several commonly used particle mesh schemes is examined, showing how submesh resolution can be achieved by including short-range forces between particles by direct summation techniques. The time integration of the equations of motion is discussed, and the accuracy of the codes for various choices of 'time' variable and time step is tested by considering energy conservation as well as by direct analysis of particle trajectories. Methods for generating initial particle positions and velocities corresponding to a growing mode representation of a specified power spectrum of linear density fluctuations are described. The effects of force resolution are studied and different simulation schemes are compared. An algorithm is implemented for generating initial conditions by varying the number of particles, the initial amplitude of density fluctuations, and the initial peculiar velocity field.

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