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Nuclear gamma-rays from energetic particle interactions
Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.
AA(NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics, Greenbelt, Md.), AB(Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; Maryland, University, College Park, Md.), AC(California, University, La Jolla, Calif.)
Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, vol. 40, July 1979, p. 487-526. Research supported by the U.S.-Israel Binational Science Foundation (ApJS Homepage)
Publication Date:
Space Radiation
NASA/STI Keywords:
Energetic Particles, Gamma Ray Astronomy, Nuclear Reactions, Particle Interactions, Astronomical Spectroscopy, Cross Sections, Gamma Ray Spectra, Interstellar Matter, Line Spectra, Photons, Protons, Solar Radiation
Bibliographic Code:


Gamma-ray line emission due to nuclear deexcitation following energetic particle interactions with abundant constituents of cosmic matter is studied. Reactions induced by energetic protons and alpha particles in ambient nuclei (He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, and Fe) are considered, along with inverse reactions in which energetic nuclei interact with ambient H and He. Line-production cross sections are evaluated by analyzing a large body of laboratory nuclear data. Both prompt gamma rays, produced by direct excitation of nuclear levels and by spallation reactions that leave the secondary nucleus in an excited state, and delayed emission from long-lived radioactive nuclei also produced in the energetic particle reactions are investigated. A line list is provided, and the shapes of the gamma-ray lines are determined. Gamma-ray line production in the interstellar medium is evaluated in detail.

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