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Early Observations of SN 1993J in M81 at McDonald Observatory
Wheeler, J. C.; Barker, E.; Benjamin, R.; Boisseau, J.; Clocchiatti, A.; de Vaucouleurs, G.; Gaffney, N.; Harkness, R. P.; Khokhlov, A. M.; Lester, D. F.; Smith, B. J.; Smith, V. V.; Tomkin, J.
Astrophysical Journal Letters v.417, p.L71 (ApJL Homepage)
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The visual light and color curves of SN 1993J show behavior unlike that of other Type II supernovae. The initial flash peaked at V = 10.7 on JD = 2,449,076.8, 3 days following the shock outbreak which is estimated to have occurred at JD 2,449,074.5 = March 28.0 UT. High-dispersion spectra show 10 velocity components in each of the Na D lines. Early optical and IR spectra show a nearly blackbody continuum cooling from 14,900 +/- 1000 K to 11,800 +/- 700 K from March 31.2 to April 1.2 UT. Superposed on this continuum are broad, weak Balmer, Paschen, and He I lines. From blackbody fits to early spectra the color excess is estimated to be about E(B - V) = 0.15 +/- 0.02. The V light curve is reproduced by a model based on a 3.3 M_sun_ helium core of which the outer 0.4 M_sun_ is 20% hydrogen by mass. The recession of the photosphere through the thin H layer is completed at the first minimum. The second peak at V = 10.86 on JD 2,449,095.5 = April 18.0 is powered by radioactive heating. The subsequent decreasing rate of decline of the light curve may indicate the presence of a constant-luminosity source of about 10^41^ ergs s^-1^. Application of the expanding photosphere method to the early spectra gives a distance estimate of 4.2 +/- 0.6 Mpc, or DM = 28.1 +/- 0.4, but the result will depend on the detailed structure of the atmosphere.

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