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Chromospheric variations in main-sequence stars
Baliunas, S. L.; Donahue, R. A.; Soon, W. H.; Horne, J. H.; Frazer, J.; Woodard-Eklund, L.; Bradford, M.; Rao, L. M.; Wilson, O. C.; Zhang, Q.; Bennett, W.; Briggs, J.; Carroll, S. M.; Duncan, D. K.; Figueroa, D.; Lanning, H. H.; Misch, T.; Mueller, J.; Noyes, R. W.; Poppe, D.; Porter, A. C.; Robinson, C. R.; Russell, J.; Shelton, J. C.; Soyumer, T.; Vaughan, A. H.; Whitney, J. H.
AA(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA, US), AB(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA, US), AC(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA, US), AD(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA, US), AE(Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA, US), AF(Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA, US), AG(Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA, US), AH(Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA, US), AI(Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA, US), AJ(Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA, US)
Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X), vol. 438, no. 1, p. 269-287 (ApJ Homepage)
Publication Date:
NASA/STI Keywords:
Chromosphere, Emission Spectra, Main Sequence Stars, Stellar Activity, Stellar Evolution, Variations, Calcium, Flux Density, H Lines, K Lines, Stellar Magnetic Fields, Stellar Rotation
Bibliographic Code:


The fluxes in passbands 0.1 nm wide and centered on the Ca II H and K emission cores have been monitored in 111 stars of spectral type F2-M2 on or near the main sequence in a continuation of an observing program started by O. C. Wilson. Most of the measurements began in 1966, with observations scheduled monthly until 1980, when observations were scheduled sevral times per week. The records, with a long-term precision of about 1.5%, display fluctuations that can be identified with variations on timescales similar to the 11 yr cycle of solar activity as well as axial rotation, and the growth and decay of emitting regions. We present the records of chromospheric emission and general conclusions about variations in surface magnetic activity on timescales greater than 1 yr but less than a few decades. The results for stars of spectral type G0-K5 V indicate a pattern of change in rotation and chromospheric activity on an evolutionary timescale, in which (1) young stars exhibit high average levels of activity, rapid rotation rates, no Maunder minimum phase and rarely display a smooth, cyclic variation; (2) stars of intermediate age (approximately 1-2 Gyr for 1 solar mass) have moderate levels of activity and rotation rates, and occasional smooth cycles; and (3) stars as old as the Sun and older have slower rotation rates, lower activity levels and smooth cycles with occasional Maunder minimum-phases.

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