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The chromospheric structure of the cool giant star G Herculis
Luttermoser, Donald G.; Johnson, Hollis R.; Eaton, Joel
AA(Iowa State University, Ames, IA, US), AB(Iowa State University, Ames, IA, US), AC(Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN, US)
Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X), vol. 422, no. 1, p. 351-365 (ApJ Homepage)
Publication Date:
NASA/STI Keywords:
Chromosphere, Cool Stars, Giant Stars, Semiregular Variable Stars, Stellar Models, Stellar Spectra, Charge Coupled Devices, Iue, Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, Numerical Analysis, Semiempirical Equations, Spectroscopic Telescopes
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Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) calculations of semiempirical chromospheric models are presented for 30 g Her (M6 III). This star is one of the coolest (Teff = 3250 K) SRb (semiregular) variable stars and has a mass perhaps as great as 4 solar mass. Chromospheric features we have observed in its spectrum include Mg II h and k; C II) UV0.01, which is sensitive to electron density; Mg I lambda 2852; Ca II H, K, and IRT; Ca I lambda 4227 and lambda 6573; Al II) UV 1; and H alpha. We pay special attention to fitting the C II intersystem lines and the Mg II resonance lines but use all the other features as constraints to some extent. The equations of radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium are solved self-consistently for H I, H(-), H2, He I, C I, C II, Na I, Mg I, Mg II, Al I, Al II, Ca I, and Ca II with the equivalent two-level technique. To simplify these calculations, a one-dimensional hydrostatic, plane-parallel atmosphere is assumed. We investigate 10 separate 'classical' chromospheric models, differing most importantly in total mass column density above the temperature minimum. Synthetic spectra from these models fit some but not all of the observations. These comparisons are discussed in detail. However, we find that no single-component classical model in hydrostatic equilibrium is able to reproduce both the Mg II line profiles and the relative strengths of the CII) lines. In all these models, chromospheric emission features are formed relatively close to the star (approximately less than 0.05 R*. The circumstellar environment has a thick, cool component overlying the Mg II emission region, which is relatively static and very turbulent. Finally, we find that thermalization in the Mg II h and k lines in the coolest giant stars is controlled by continuum absorption from Ca I 4p 4p3 P0 bound-free opacity and not collisional de-excitation as is the case for warmer K giants.

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