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Evolutionary versus dynamical time scales for the evolution of the central stars of planetary nebulae
McCarthy, J. K.; Mould, J. R.; Mendez, R. H.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Husfeld, D.; Herrero, A.; Groth, H. G.
AA(Palomar Observatory, Pasadena, CA), AB(Palomar Observatory, Pasadena, CA), AC(CONICET, Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires, Argentina), AD(München, Universität, Munich, Germany), AE(München, Universität, Munich, Germany)
Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X), vol. 351, March 1, 1990, p. 230-244. Research supported by the Max-Planck-Institut für Physik und Astrophysik. (ApJ Homepage)
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NASA/STI Keywords:
Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars, Planetary Nebulae, Stellar Evolution, Absorption Spectra, Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram, Photoionization, Stellar Envelopes, Stellar Mass, Stellar Winds
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The disagreement between evolutionary and dynamical time scales for the evolution of the central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) through the H-R diagram is investigated. Three possible reasons for the disagreement are examined: (1) the nebulae could have experienced a phase of rapid photoionization of material ejected previously while the stars were still on the AGB; (2) the central stars could have undergone a late helium shell flash and returned to the AGB; and (3) the AGB-CSPN evolutionary transition times could have been increased by small additional amounts of residual envelope material remaining after the superwind mass-loss phase. Mechanism (3) is favored here because it can account for evolutionary ages both less than and greater than the corresponding dynamical ages.

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