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A search for substellar companions to solar-type stars
Campbell, Bruce; Walker, G. A. H.; Yang, S.
AA(Victoria, University; Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria, Canada), AB(British Columbia, University, Vancouver, Canada), AC(British Columbia, University, Vancouver, Canada)
Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X), vol. 331, Aug. 15, 1988, p. 902-921. Research supported by the National Research Council of Canada, Canada Employment and Immigration Commission, and NSERC. (ApJ Homepage)
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NASA/STI Keywords:
Companion Stars, Dwarf Stars, Late Stars, Subgiant Stars, Variable Stars, Accretion Disks, Brown Dwarf Stars, Chromosphere, Gravitational Collapse, Line Spectra, Radial Velocity, Velocity Distribution
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Relative radial velocities with a mean external error of 13 m/s rms have been obtained for 12 late-type dwarfs and four subgiants over the past six years. Two stars, Chi1 Ori A and Gamma Cep, show large velocity variations probably due to stellar companions. In contrast, the remaining 14 stars are virtually constant in velocity, showing no changes larger than about 50 m/s. No obvious variations due to effects other than center-of-mass motion, including changes correlated with chromospheric activity, are observed. Seven stars show small, but statistically significant, long-term trends in the relative velocities. These cannot be due to about 10-80 Jupiter mass brown dwarfs in orbits with P less than about 50 yr, since these would have been previously detected by conventional astrometry; companions of about 1-9 Jupiter masses are inferred. Since relatively massive brown dwarfs are rare or nonexistent, at least as companions to normal stars, these low-mass objects could represent the tip of the planetary mass spectrum. Observations are continuing to confirm these variations, and to determine periods.

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