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Solar gradual hard X-ray bursts and associated phenomena
Cliver, E. W.; Dennis, B. R.; Kiplinger, A. L.; Kane, S. R.; Neidig, D. F.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.; Koomen, M. J.
AA(USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, MA), AB(NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD), AC(NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD), AD(California, University, Berkeley), AE(Sacramento Peak Observatory, Sunspot, NM)
Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X), vol. 305, June 15, 1986, p. 920-935. (ApJ Homepage)
Publication Date:
Solar Physics
NASA/STI Keywords:
Solar Flares, Solar Radio Bursts, Solar X-Rays, Decimeter Waves, H Alpha Line, Magnetic Field Reconnection, Microwaves, Solar Corona
Bibliographic Code:


White-light coronagraph, H-alpha and radio data are presented as well as hard X-ray data for a sample of 10 gradual hard X-ray bursts (GHBs) in an attempt to better understand the nature of these events. It is found that: (1) the hard X-ray photon energy spectrum began to harden near the onset of the GHBs and continued in this fashion during the decay phase; (2) a coronal mass ejection (CME) occurred in association with at least nine of the GHBs; (3) the GHBs occurred in the late phase of major flares; (4) the centimeter wavelength bursts associated with the GHBs had relatively low frequency spectral maxima, and in relation to the observed hard X-ray emission, they were microwave-rich; (5) the associated decimetric bursts showed significant intensity variations on time scales ranging from 0.1 to approximately greater than 1 minute; and (6) the GHBs were most strongly associated with type IV events. It is concluded that the acceleration and trapping of radiating electrons occurs in the postflare loop systems following CMEs.

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