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Title:
Origin of planetary nebulae - Morphology, carbon-to-oxygen abundance ratios, and central star multiplicity
Authors:
Zuckerman, B.; Aller, L. H.
Affiliation:
AA(California, University, Los Angeles), AB(California, University, Los Angeles)
Publication:
Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X), vol. 301, Feb. 15, 1986, p. 772-789. (ApJ Homepage)
Publication Date:
02/1986
Category:
Astrophysics
Origin:
STI
NASA/STI Keywords:
Abundance, Binary Stars, Planetary Nebulae, Stellar Evolution, Carbon, Main Sequence Stars, Oxygen, Ratios, Red Giant Stars, Stellar Magnitude, Stellar Mass Ejection
DOI:
10.1086/163943
Bibliographic Code:
1986ApJ...301..772Z

Abstract

The authors have examined data pertaining to the morphology, carbon-to-oxygen abundance ratio, and central star multiplicity of 139 planetary nebulae (PNs). Among 108 nonstellar PNs, ≡50% display a bipolar symmetry, and an additional ≡30% display elliptical symmetry. Comparison of the sizes of extreme red giant stars and separations of main-sequence, solar-type binary stars suggests that the gravitational field of a companion star is unlikely to be responsible for the mass ejection in all or even a majority of these cases. However, it is perhaps conceivable that a secondary star is responsible for most of the above-mentioned symmetries. Based on optical, ultraviolet, infrared, and radio data, the authors find 42 C-rich and 26 O-rich PNs in the set. These numbers agree with the relative numbers of C- and O-rich red giant stars with large mass loss rates and are consistent with the idea that the progenitors of PNs are this class of red giant stars.

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