Sign on

SAO/NASA ADS Astronomy Abstract Service

· Find Similar Abstracts (with default settings below)
· Full Refereed Journal Article (PDF/Postscript)
· Full Refereed Scanned Article (GIF)
· References in the article
· Citations to the Article (233) (Citation History)
· Refereed Citations to the Article
· SIMBAD Objects (138)
· NED Objects (1)
· Also-Read Articles (Reads History)
· Translate This Page
Origin of planetary nebulae - Morphology, carbon-to-oxygen abundance ratios, and central star multiplicity
Zuckerman, B.; Aller, L. H.
AA(California, University, Los Angeles), AB(California, University, Los Angeles)
Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X), vol. 301, Feb. 15, 1986, p. 772-789. (ApJ Homepage)
Publication Date:
NASA/STI Keywords:
Abundance, Binary Stars, Planetary Nebulae, Stellar Evolution, Carbon, Main Sequence Stars, Oxygen, Ratios, Red Giant Stars, Stellar Magnitude, Stellar Mass Ejection
Bibliographic Code:


The authors have examined data pertaining to the morphology, carbon-to-oxygen abundance ratio, and central star multiplicity of 139 planetary nebulae (PNs). Among 108 nonstellar PNs, ≡50% display a bipolar symmetry, and an additional ≡30% display elliptical symmetry. Comparison of the sizes of extreme red giant stars and separations of main-sequence, solar-type binary stars suggests that the gravitational field of a companion star is unlikely to be responsible for the mass ejection in all or even a majority of these cases. However, it is perhaps conceivable that a secondary star is responsible for most of the above-mentioned symmetries. Based on optical, ultraviolet, infrared, and radio data, the authors find 42 C-rich and 26 O-rich PNs in the set. These numbers agree with the relative numbers of C- and O-rich red giant stars with large mass loss rates and are consistent with the idea that the progenitors of PNs are this class of red giant stars.

Printing Options

Print whole paper
Print Page(s) through

Return 600 dpi PDF to Acrobat/Browser. Different resolutions (200 or 600 dpi), formats (Postscript, PDF, etc), page sizes (US Letter, European A4, etc), and compression (gzip,compress,none) can be set through the Printing Preferences

More Article Retrieval Options

HELP for Article Retrieval

Bibtex entry for this abstract   Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences)

Find Similar Abstracts:

Use: Authors
Keywords (in text query field)
Abstract Text
Return: Query Results Return    items starting with number
Query Form
Database: Astronomy
arXiv e-prints