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Is the universe really expanding?
Laviolette, P. A.
Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X), vol. 301, Feb. 15, 1986, p. 544-553. (ApJ Homepage)
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NASA/STI Keywords:
Cosmology, Galaxies, Red Shift, Universe, Angular Distribution, Evolution (Development), Hubble Diagram, Luminosity, Statistical Tests
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The no-evolution, tired-light model and the no-evolution, q0 = 0, expanding universe cosmology are compared against observational data on four kinds of cosmological tests. On all four tests the tired-light model is found to make the better fit to the data without requiring the ad hoc introduction of assumptions about rapid galaxy evolution. The data may be interpreted in the simplest fashion if space is assumed to be Euclidean, galaxies cosmologically static, evolutionary effects relatively insignificant, and photon energy nonconserved, with photons losing about 5 to 7 percent of their energy for every 10 billion light years of distance traveled through intergalactic space. The observation that redshifts are quantized may be accommodated by a version of the tired-light model in which photon energy decreases occur incrementally in a stepwise fashion.

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