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|Title:||On the physics of dust grains in hot gas|
|Authors:||Draine, B. T.; Salpeter, E. E.|
|Affiliation:||AA(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass.), AB(Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.)|
|Publication:||Astrophysical Journal, Part 1, vol. 231, July 1, 1979, p. 77-94. (ApJ Homepage)|
|NASA/STI Keywords:||Cosmic Dust, Cosmic Plasma, Grains, High Temperature Gases, Sputtering, Interstellar Matter, Photoelectric Emission, Secondary Emission|
Charging of dust grains in hot (10,000-1 billion K) plasma is studied,
including photoelectron and secondary electron emission, field emission,
and transmission of electrons and ions through the grain. The resulting
grain potentials are (for temperatures of at least about 100,000 K)
considerably smaller in magnitude than found by Burke and Silk (1974).
Even so, large electrostatic stresses can cause ion field emission and
rapid destruction of small grains in very hot gas. Rapid rotation can
also disrupt small grains, but damping (by microwave emission) usually
limits the centrifugal stress to acceptable values for plasma densities
of no more than about 1 per cu cm. Sputtering rates are estimated for
grains in hot gas, based upon a semiempirical fit to experimental data.
Predicted sputtering rates for possible grain constituents are similar
to estimates by Barlow (1978), but in some cases differ significantly.
Useful approximation formulas are given for the drag forces acting on a
grain with arbitrary Mach number.
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