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Title:
Effects of particle drift on cosmic-ray transport. I - General properties, application to solar modulation
Authors:
Jokipii, J. R.; Levy, E. H.; Hubbard, W. B.
Affiliation:
AA(Arizona, University, Tucson, Ariz.), AB(Arizona, University, Tucson, Ariz.), AC(Arizona, University, Tucson, Ariz.)
Publication:
Astrophysical Journal, Part 1, vol. 213, May 1, 1977, p. 861-868. (ApJ Homepage)
Publication Date:
05/1977
Category:
Space Radiation
Origin:
STI
NASA/STI Keywords:
Particle Diffusion, Solar Cosmic Rays, Solar Flares, Solar Wind Velocity, Transport Properties, Adiabatic Conditions, Interplanetary Magnetic Fields, Particle Flux Density
DOI:
10.1086/155218
Bibliographic Code:
1977ApJ...213..861J

Abstract

Although gradient and curvature drifts are explicitly contained in the general equations of cosmic-ray transport, they have been almost universally neglected in applications of these equations. The drifts are evaluated explicitly for the Parker (1965) spiral magnetic field, and it is shown that for particles with rigidities greater than about 0.3 GV in the solar wind, they are larger than the solar-wind velocity over much of the heliosphere. Hence most current models of solar modulation and solar-flare particle events neglect terms which in many cases are as important as those retained. Calculations are presented which demonstrate the importance of the effects for simple modulation models. It is concluded that comparisons of presently available model calculations with observations do not provide a fair test of transport theory since they neglect drifts, which may substantially reduce the net modulation.

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Physics
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