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Title:
The Murchison Widefield Array Correlator
Authors:
Ord, S. M.; Crosse, B.; Emrich, D.; Pallot, D.; Wayth, R. B.; Clark, M. A.; Tremblay, S. E.; Arcus, W.; Barnes, D.; Bell, M.; Bernardi, G.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Bunton, J. D.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Deshpande, A. A.; deSouza, L.; Ewell-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Herne, D.; Hewitt, J. N.; Hindson, L.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Jacobs, D.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kincaid, B. B.; Koenig, R.; Kratzenberg, E.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A.; Pathikulangara, J.; Pindor, B.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Remillard, R. A.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Salah, J. E.; Sault, R. J.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Stevens, J.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Waterson, M.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wyithe, J. S. B.
Affiliation:
AA(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Perth, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO)), AB(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Perth, Australia), AC(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Perth, Australia), AD(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Perth, Australia), AE(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Perth, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO)), AF(NVIDIA, Santa Clara, California, USA; Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, USA; California Institute of Technology, California, USA), AG(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Perth, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO)), AH(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Perth, Australia), AI(Monash University, Melbourne, Australia 0000-0002-4594-3438), AJ(University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia), AK(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, USA; Square Kilometre Array South Africa (SKA SA), Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa), AL(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Perth, Australia), AM(Arizona State University, Tempe, USA), AN(The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia), AO(CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia), AP(MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA, USA), AQ(MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA, USA), AR(Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, India), AS(University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia), AT(MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, USA), AU(MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, USA), AV(MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, USA), AW(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, USA), AX(University of Washington, Seattle, USA), AY(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Perth, Australia), AZ(MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, USA), BA(Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand), BB(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Perth, Australia), BC(Arizona State University, Tempe, USA), BD(Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand), BE(University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, USA), BF(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, USA; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA), BG(MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA, USA), BH(CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia), BI(MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA, USA), BJ(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Perth, Australia), BK(ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO); University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia), BL(MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA, USA), BM(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Perth, Australia), BN(The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia), BO(MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA, USA), BP(ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO); CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia), BQ(University of Washington, Seattle, USA), BR(MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, USA), BS(National Center for Radio Astrophysics, Pune, India), BT(ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO); The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia), BU(CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia), BV(The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia), BW(Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, India), BX(The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia), BY(MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, USA), BZ(The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia), CA(MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA, USA), CB(National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, USA), CC(MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA, USA), CD(The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia), CE(Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, India), CF(Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, India), CG(CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia), CH(ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO); Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, India), CI(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Perth, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO)), CJ(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Perth, Australia; The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia), CK(ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO); The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia), CL(MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA, USA), CM(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Perth, Australia), CN(MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, USA), CO(ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO); The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia)
Publication:
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia, Volume 32, id.e006 14 pp. (PASA Homepage)
Publication Date:
03/2015
Origin:
CROSSREF; CUP
Astronomy Keywords:
instrumentation: interferometers, techniques: interferometric
Abstract Copyright:
2015: Astronomical Society of Australia
DOI:
10.1017/pasa.2015.5
Bibliographic Code:
2015PASA...32....6O

Abstract

The Murchison Widefield Array is a Square Kilometre Array Precursor. The telescope is located at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory in Western Australia. The MWA consists of 4 096 dipoles arranged into 128 dual polarisation aperture arrays forming a connected element interferometer that cross-correlates signals from all 256 inputs. A hybrid approach to the correlation task is employed, with some processing stages being performed by bespoke hardware, based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays, and others by Graphics Processing Units housed in general purpose rack mounted servers. The correlation capability required is approximately 8 tera floating point operations per second. The MWA has commenced operations and the correlator is generating 8.3 TB day-1 of correlation products, that are subsequently transferred 700 km from the MRO to Perth (WA) in real-time for storage and offline processing. In this paper, we outline the correlator design, signal path, and processing elements and present the data format for the internal and external interfaces.
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