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Title:
Ionospheric Modelling using GPS to Calibrate the MWA. I: Comparison of First Order Ionospheric Effects between GPS Models and MWA Observations
Authors:
Arora, B. S.; Morgan, J.; Ord, S. M.; Tingay, S. J.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Bell, M.; Bernardi, G.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Briggs, F.; Callingham, J. R.; Deshpande, A. A.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; For, B.-Q.; Hancock, P.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Jacobs, D.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kapinska, A. D.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Lenc, E.; McKinley, B.; Mitchell, D.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Pindor, B.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Wayth, R. B.; Wu, C.; Zheng, Q.; Bowman, J. D.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Emrich, D.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kratzenberg, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McWhirter, S. R.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Prabu, T.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Shankar, N. Udaya; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Waterson, M.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.
Affiliation:
AA(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia), AB(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia), AC(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia), AD(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia), AE(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia), AF(Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia), AG(Square Kilometre Array South Africa (SKA SA), 3rd Floor, The Park, Park Road, Pinelands 7405, South Africa; Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa; Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA), AH(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia), AI(Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611, Australia), AJ(Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia; CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science (CASS), PO Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Redfern, NSW 2016, Australia), AK(Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, 560080, India), AL(Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, 560080, India), AM(Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA), AN(Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA), AO(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia), AP(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Redfern, NSW 2016, Australia), AQ(Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA), AR(School of Chemical & Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140, New Zealand), AS(School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA), AT(School of Chemical & Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140, New Zealand), AU(ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Redfern, NSW 2016, Australia; International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia), AV(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia), AW(Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Redfern, NSW 2016, Australia), AX(Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Redfern, NSW 2016, Australia), AY(CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science (CASS), PO Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Redfern, NSW 2016, Australia; School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia), AZ(National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute for Fundamental Research, Pune 411007, India), BA(Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611, Australia), BB(School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia), BC(ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Redfern, NSW 2016, Australia; School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia), BD(School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia), BE(ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Redfern, NSW 2016, Australia; International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia), BF(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Redfern, NSW 2016, Australia), BG(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia), BH(School of Chemical & Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140, New Zealand), BI(School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA), BJ(MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA 01886, USA), BK(MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA 01886, USA), BL(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia), BM(Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA), BN(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA), BO(Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA), BP(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA), BQ(MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA 01886, USA), BR(MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA 01886, USA), BS(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia), BT(MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA 01886, USA), BU(Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA), BV(Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA), BW(Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, 560080, India), BX(MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA 01886, USA), BY(National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903, and Greenbank, WV 24944, USA), BZ(Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, 560080, India), CA(Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, 560080, India), CB(ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Redfern, NSW 2016, Australia; Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, 560080, India), CC(SKA Organisation Headquarters, Jodrell Bank Observatory, Cheshire, SK11 9DL, UK), CD(ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Redfern, NSW 2016, Australia; School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia), CE(MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA 01886, USA), CF(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia), CG(Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA)
Publication:
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia, Volume 32, id.e029 21 pp. (PASA Homepage)
Publication Date:
08/2015
Origin:
CUP
Astronomy Keywords:
atmospheric effects, techniques: interferometric
Abstract Copyright:
2015: Astronomical Society of Australia
DOI:
10.1017/pasa.2015.29
Bibliographic Code:
2015PASA...32...29A

Abstract

We compare first-order (refractive) ionospheric effects seen by the MWA with the ionosphere as inferred from GPS data. The first-order ionosphere manifests itself as a bulk position shift of the observed sources across an MWA field of view. These effects can be computed from global ionosphere maps provided by GPS analysis centres, namely the CODE. However, for precision radio astronomy applications, data from local GPS networks needs to be incorporated into ionospheric modelling. For GPS observations, the ionospheric parameters are biased by GPS receiver instrument delays, among other effects, also known as receiver DCBs. The receiver DCBs need to be estimated for any non-CODE GPS station used for ionosphere modelling. In this work, single GPS station-based ionospheric modelling is performed at a time resolution of 10 min. Also the receiver DCBs are estimated for selected Geoscience Australia GPS receivers, located at Murchison Radio Observatory, Yarragadee, Mount Magnet and Wiluna. The ionospheric gradients estimated from GPS are compared with that inferred from MWA. The ionospheric gradients at all the GPS stations show a correlation with the gradients observed with the MWA. The ionosphere estimates obtained using GPS measurements show promise in terms of providing calibration information for the MWA.
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