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Title:
ORIGIN: metal creation and evolution from the cosmic dawn
Authors:
den Herder, Jan-Willem; Piro, Luigi; Ohashi, Takaya; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Kaastra, Jelle S.; Amati, L.; Andersen, M. I.; Arnaud, M.; Attéia, J.-L.; Bandler, S.; Barbera, M.; Barcons, X.; Barthelmy, S.; Basa, S.; Basso, S.; Boer, M.; Branchini, E.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Borgani, S.; Boyarsky, A.; Brunetti, G.; Budtz-Jorgensen, C.; Burrows, D.; Butler, N.; Campana, S.; Caroli, E.; Ceballos, M.; Christensen, F.; Churazov, E.; Comastri, A.; Colasanti, L.; Cole, R.; Content, R.; Corsi, A.; Costantini, E.; Conconi, P.; Cusumano, G.; de Plaa, J.; De Rosa, A.; Del Santo, M.; Di Cosimo, S.; De Pasquale, M.; Doriese, R.; Ettori, S.; Evans, P.; Ezoe, Y.; Ferrari, L.; Finger, H.; Figueroa-Feliciano, T.; Friedrich, P.; Fujimoto, R.; Furuzawa, A.; Fynbo, J.; Gatti, F.; Galeazzi, M.; Gehrels, N.; Gendre, B.; Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Gilfanov, M.; Giommi, P.; Girardi, M.; Grindlay, J.; Cocchi, M.; Godet, O.; Guedel, M.; Haardt, F.; den Hartog, R.; Hepburn, I.; Hermsen, W.; Hjorth, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Holland, A.; Hornstrup, A.; van der Horst, A.; Hoshino, A.; in't Zand, J.; Irwin, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Jonker, P.; Kitayama, T.; Kawahara, H.; Kawai, N.; Kelley, R.; Kilbourne, C.; de Korte, P.; Kusenko, A.; Kuvvetli, I.; Labanti, M.; Macculi, C.; Maiolino, R.; Hesse, M. Mas; Matsushita, K.; Mazzotta, P.; McCammon, D.; Méndez, M.; Mignani, R.; Mineo, T.; Mitsuda, K.; Mushotzky, R.; Molendi, S.; Moscardini, L.; Natalucci, L.; Nicastro, F.; O'Brien, P.; Osborne, J.; Paerels, F.; Page, M.; Paltani, S.; Pedersen, K.; Perinati, E.; Ponman, T.; Pointecouteau, E.; Predehl, P.; Porter, S.; Rasmussen, A.; Rauw, G.; Röttgering, H.; Roncarelli, M.; Rosati, P.; Quadrini, E.; Ruchayskiy, O.; Salvaterra, R.; Sasaki, S.; Sato, K.; Savaglio, S.; Schaye, J.; Sciortino, S.; Shaposhnikov, M.; Sharples, R.; Shinozaki, K.; Spiga, D.; Sunyaev, R.; Suto, Y.; Takei, Y.; Tanvir, N.; Tashiro, M.; Tamura, T.; Tawara, Y.; Troja, E.; Tsujimoto, M.; Tsuru, T.; Ubertini, P.; Ullom, J.; Ursino, E.; Verbunt, F.; van de Voort, F.; Viel, M.; Wachter, S.; Watson, D.; Weisskopf, M.; Werner, N.; White, N.; Willingale, R.; Wijers, R.; Yamasaki, N.; Yoshikawa, K.; Zane, S.
Affiliation:
AA(SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research), AB(INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica), AC(Tokyo Metropolitan University), AD(Marshall Space Flight Center), AE(Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University), AF(SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research), AG(INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica), AH(Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen), AI(Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay), AJ(Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, LAT), AK(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center), AL(INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale), AM(IFCA), AN(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center), AO(Observatoire de Marseille), AP(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico Brera), AQ(Observatoire de Haute Provence), AR(Università Roma III), AS(Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College of London), AT(INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico), AU(CERN), AV(INAF-IRA), AW(DNSC/Technical University of Denmark), AX(Penn State University), AY(University of California), AZ(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico Brera), BA(INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica), BB(IFCA), BC(DNSC/Technical University of Denmark), BD(Max-Planck-Insitut für Astrophysik), BE(INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico), BF(INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica), BG(Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College of London), BH(Durham University), BI(INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica), BJ(SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research), BK(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico Brera), BL(INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale), BM(SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research), BN(INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica), BO(INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica), BP(INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica), BQ(Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College of London), BR(NIST), BS(INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico), BT(Leicester University), BU(Tokyo Metropolitan University), BV(Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare), BW(University Space Research Association), BX(MIT), BY(Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik), BZ(Kanazawa University), CA(Nagoya University), CB(Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen), CC(Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare), CD(University of Miami), CE(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center), CF(INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica), CG(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico Brera), CH(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico Brera), CI(Max-Planck-Insitut für Astrophysik), CJ(ASI Data Center), CK(INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico), CL(CfA, Harvard University), CM(INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica), CN(CESR Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements), CO(University of Vienna), CP(University of Insubria), CQ(SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research), CR(Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College of London), CS(SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research), CT(Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen), CU(Leiden University), CV(Open University), CW(DNSC/Technical University of Denmark), CX(Marshall Space Flight Center), CY(Kanazawa University), CZ(SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research), DA(NIST), DB(Tokyo Metropolitan University), DC(SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research), DD(Toho University), DE(Tokyo Metropolitan University), DF(Tokyo Institute of Technology), DG(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center), DH(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center), DI(SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research), DJ(University of California at Los Angeles), DK(DNSC/Technical University of Denmark), DL(INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica), DM(INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica), DN(INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma), DO(Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA)), DP(Tokyo University of Science), DQ(Universitá de Roma Tor Vergata), DR(University of Wisconsin), DS(Groningen University), DT(Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College of London), DU(INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale), DV(Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA), DW(University of Maryland), DX(INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica), DY(INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico), DZ(INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica), EA(INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma), EB(Leicester University), EC(Leicester University), ED(Columbia University), EE(Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College of London), EF(ISDC, University of Geneva), EG(Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen), EH(INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale), EI(University of Birmingham), EJ(CESR Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements), EK(Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik), EL(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center), EM(KIPAC/Stanford), EN(Liege University), EO(Leiden University), EP(University of Bologna), EQ(ESO), ER(INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica), ES(Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne), ET(University of Insubria), EU(Tokyo Metropolitan University), EV(Tokyo University of Science), EW(Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik), EX(Leiden University), EY(INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale), EZ(Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne), FA(Durham University), FB(Aerospace, Research and Development Directorate, JAXA), FC(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico Brera), FD(Max-Planck-Insitut für Astrophysik), FE(University of Tokyo), FF(Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA), FG(Leicester University), FH(Saitama University), FI(Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA), FJ(Nagoya University), FK(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center), FL(Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA), FM(Kyoto University), FN(INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica), FO(NIST), FP(Università Roma III), FQ(Utrecht University), FR(Leiden University), FS(INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico), FT(Caltech), FU(Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen), FV(Marshall Space Flight Center), FW(KIPAC/Stanford), FX(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center), FY(Leicester University), FZ(University of Amsterdam), GA(Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA), GB(Tsukuba University), GC(Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College of London)
Publication:
Experimental Astronomy, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp.519-549 (ExA Homepage)
Publication Date:
10/2012
Origin:
SPRINGER
Keywords:
X-ray, Mission, Gamma-ray bursts, Clusters of galaxies, Warm-hot intergalactic medium, Chemical evolution
Abstract Copyright:
(c) 2012: Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
DOI:
10.1007/s10686-011-9224-7
Bibliographic Code:
2012ExA....34..519D

Abstract

ORIGIN is a proposal for the M3 mission call of ESA aimed at the study of metal creation from the epoch of cosmic dawn. Using high-spectral resolution in the soft X-ray band, ORIGIN will be able to identify the physical conditions of all abundant elements between C and Ni to red-shifts of z = 10, and beyond. The mission will answer questions such as: When were the first metals created? How does the cosmic metal content evolve? Where do most of the metals reside in the Universe? What is the role of metals in structure formation and evolution? To reach out to the early Universe ORIGIN will use Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) to study their local environments in their host galaxies. This requires the capability to slew the satellite in less than a minute to the GRB location. By studying the chemical composition and properties of clusters of galaxies we can extend the range of exploration to lower redshifts ( z ˜0.2). For this task we need a high-resolution spectral imaging instrument with a large field of view. Using the same instrument, we can also study the so far only partially detected baryons in the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM). The less dense part of the WHIM will be studied using absorption lines at low redshift in the spectra for GRBs. The ORIGIN mission includes a Transient Event Detector (coded mask with a sensitivity of 0.4 photon/cm2/s in 10 s in the 5-150 keV band) to identify and localize 2000 GRBs over a five year mission, of which ˜65 GRBs have a redshift >7. The Cryogenic Imaging Spectrometer, with a spectral resolution of 2.5 eV, a field of view of 30 arcmin and large effective area below 1 keV has the sensitivity to study clusters up to a significant fraction of the virial radius and to map the denser parts of the WHIM (factor 30 higher than achievable with current instruments). The payload is complemented by a Burst InfraRed Telescope to enable onboard red-shift determination of GRBs (hence securing proper follow up of high-z bursts) and also probes the mildly ionized state of the gas. Fast repointing is achieved by a dedicated Controlled Momentum Gyro and a low background is achieved by the selected low Earth orbit.
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