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Linking references to ADS abstracts

Here are instructions on how to link to the ADS abstracts from a reference list.

The URL for links to the ADS abstracts has the following form:

where bibcode is the bibliographic code for the desired article. The bibliographic codes are generated from the journal, volume and page information for each publication. The form of the bibliographic code is:



yyyy:Year of publication
jjjjj: A standard abbreviation for the journal (left justified). A list of journal abbreviations is available.
vvvv: The volume number (for a journal) or an abbreviation that specifies what type of publication it is (e.g. conf for conference proceedings, meet for Meeting proceedings, book for a book, cong for congress proceedings). This field is right justified.
m: Qualifier for publication:
.: For normal references
L: Letter
P: Pink page
Q-Z: Unduplicating character for identical codes
1-9: For page numbers larger than 9999
pppp: Page number (right justified).
a: The first letter of the last name of the first author.

All fields are padded with '.' (right or left depening on how the field is justified).

Here are some abbreviations for the most popular Journals:
ApJ: Astrophysical Journal
ApJS: Astrophysical Journal Supplements
ApJ: Astrophysical Journal Letters (with an 'L' in the Qualifier position).
AJ: Astronomical Journal
A&A: Astronomy & Astrophysics
A&AS: Astronomy & Astrophysics Supplements
MNRAS: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
PASP: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
PASA: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia
PASAu: Proceedings of the Astronomical Society of Australia
PASJ: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan

Once a bibcode has been built, there is a verification utility available that allows the user to determine whether a given bibcode exists in the ADS.


Let's for instance take the first reference in the paper "New HI observations of the prototype Polar Ring galaxy NGC 4650A", Magda Arnaboldi, PASA, 14 (1), 92:

Arnaboldi, M., & Galletta, G. 1993, A&A, 268, 411

The bibliographic code for this reference is: 1993A&A...268..411A

Checking this bibcode with the verification utility results in:

ADS Astronomy Database Bibcode Verification

YES, 1993A&A...268..411A is a valid bibcode, accno is A94-11768
NASA/STI Abstract available
Full article available
SIMBAD Objects available
NED Objects available
References available
Citations available 
This indicates that the abstract is available through the ADS, together with other links.

A complete reference with link would then look something like:

Arnaboldi, M., & Galletta, G. 1993, A&A, 268, 411 [ADS Abstract]

For further questions, please contact the ADS at