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    6.5 - The ADS Tagged Format

    We welcome the submission of Bibliographic Records from librarians and researchers willing to provide this information to the ADS. To facilitate the insertion of this data into our databases, we request that the records be submitted in electronic form and adhere to the following format:

        %R Bibliographic Code (required)
        %A Author List
        %a Review Authors
        %b Book Authors
        %F Author Affiliation
        %J Journal Name
        %V Journal Volume
        %D Publication Date
        %P First Page of Article
        %L Last Page of Article
        %T Title (required)
        %t Original Language Title
        %C Abstract Copyright
        %O Object Name
        %Q Subject Category
        %G Origin
        %S Score from the ADS query (output only)
        %E Electronic Data Table
        %I Links to other information (output only)
        %U for Electronic Document
        %K Keywords
        %M Language (if not English)
        %X Comment
        %W Database (if submitting for more than one)
        %Y DOI
        %B Abstract Text
        %Z References
    A long entry should continue on the next line(s) with no repetition of the percent sign and keying letter. All entries should be in ascii and there should be no tabs or control characters. Blank lines can delimit paragraphs in the abstract, but should not otherwise be present within a record. The bibliographic code is the only field which is required for all records, but author list, journal name, publication date, and title are strongly recommended as well. Additional records should be separated by a blank line.

    6.5.1 - Fields in the Tagged Format

    Detailed descriptions of each field follow: - Bibliographic Code:

    The bibliographic code is a 19 digit code (see Bibcodes ) - Author List

    The author list should contain semi-colon separated authors listed with last name first, followed by first name or initials. A paper with one author would be listed as Minkowski, R. A paper with multiple authors would be listed as

        Neubauer, F. J.; Burwell, C. G.; Miller, W. C.
    Authors whose names contain "Jr" or "III" should be entered as

        Roberts, L. C., Jr.
     - Review Authors

    The contains the review authors in the same format as the regular authors. - Book Authors

    The contains the book authors in the same format as the regular authors. - Author Affiliation

    The institution with which the author is affiliated. If more than one author affiliation is to be listed, here is the suggested format:

        AA(first author's institution) AB(second author's institution) ...
    Email addresses can be specified in the author affiliations. Please mark them as follows:

        <EMAIL>email address</EMAIL>
     - Journal Name

    This entry contains the reference information, including the journal name, volume, and page range. Also include here any editors of books or conference proceedings. - Journal Volume

    This contains the journal volume. - Publication Date

    This contains the publication month and year of the article in the format MM/YYYY (i.e. 02/1995). If no publication month is known, please use a month of 00. - First Page of Article

    This contains the first page number of the article. - Last Page of Article

    This contains the last page number of the article. - Title

    %T contains the title of the article. If there is also an original language title, it can be submitted with a %t and the language included in the %M tag. - Object Name

    This contains the name of Objects described in the paper. These are normally handled through SIMBAD and are therefore not part of the user input except in special circumstances. - Subject Category

    This contains the subject category of the article. - Origin of the Article in the ADS.

    This contains the source of the record in the ADS. - Score From the ADS Query

    This contains the score resulting from the ADS query that produced the result. - Abstract Copyright

    This contains a copyright statement of the abstract, such as
        (C) 1990: American Astromomical Society
     - URL for Electronic Document

    This field provides a place to put the URL which links to an electronic version of an associated document, where one exists. - Electronic Data Table

    This field provides a place to point to an electronic version of associated data tables, where they exist. - Links to Other Information

    This contains the available links to other information. - Keywords

    This contains keywords related to the article, separated by a comma. - Language

    This contains the original language of the article. - Comment

    This contains author comments. - Database

    This contains the database key if you are submitting abstracts for multiple databases (AST, PHY). - DOI

    This contains the DOI. - Abstract

    This contains the abstract text. Any line beginning with at least one blank space will be assumed to be a new paragraph. New paragraphs may also be delimited with blank lines. Abstracts should not contain tables, and will appear best in the system if they contain only ascii characters. - References

    This field should contain the list of references cited by the current paper. They should be formatted so that there is just one reference per line, e.g.:

        %Z Bechtold,~J., \etal 1994, \aj, 108, 374
           Massa, D. L., & Savage, B. D. 1984, ApJ, 279, 310
           Savage, B. D., & Mathis, J. S. 1979, ARA&A, 17, 73
    Please note that references containing TeX/LaTeX formatting, AASTeX macros and HTML entities are acceptable. - Examples of Records in Tagged Format

    This section shows a few examples of our tagged format.

     %R 1993ApJ...415...50C
     %A Cavaliere, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Menci, N.
     %J Astrophysical Journal, Part 1, vol.415, no. 1, p. 50-57.
     %D 09/1993
     %L 57
     %T Distant clusters of galaxies detected by X-rays
     %K Cosmic Plasma, Dark Matter, Galactic Clusters, X-ray Astronomy, Baryons, 
        Luminosity, Redshift
     %B The dynamical masses of groups and clusters of galaxies decrease on average
     with increasing redshift, after the hierarchical cosmogonies dominated by
     direct collapses of dark matter overdensities. We show that the masses of
     intracluster plasma emitting in the X-ray band are to decrease more rapidly. We
     also show that consideration of the intrinsic spread in the dynamical formation
     times leads us to predict more numerous faint sources at given dynamical mass.
     The model we compute yields steeper luminosity functions in the X-ray band with
     a specific change in lookback time: the bright end shifts back. Such negative
     evolution is fast even at modest redshifts z less than about 0.5 if the
     external gas infalling into groups of clusters was preheated and has cooled
     down after z of about 1.5-2. If so, the evolution is considerably faster in the
     X-ray than in the optical band, comparing interestingly with data from the
     existing surveys.
     %Z Abell, Ci. 0. 1958, ApJS, 3, 211
     Barcons, X., Fabian, A. C., & Rees, M. J. 1991, Nature, 350, 685
     Bardeen, J. M., Bond, J. R., Kaiser, N., & Szalay, A. 5. 1986, ApJ, 403, 15
     Blumenthal, Ci., Faber, S. M., Primack, J. R., & Rees, M. J. 1984, Nature, 311, 517
     Bohringer, H., et al. 1991, in Proc. NATO ASI "Clusters and
     %Superclusters of Galaxies," ed. A. C. Fabian (Dordrecht: Kluwer), 71 
     Burg, R., Cavaliere, A., & Menci, N. 1993, ApJ, 404, L55
     Cavaliere, A., Gursky, H., & Tucker, W. H. 1971, Nature, 231, 437
     Cavaliere, A., & Colafrancesco, 5. 1988, ApJ, 331, 660
     ---. 1990, in Clusters of Galaxies (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press), 43
     Cavaliere, A., Burg, R., & Giacconi, R. 1991, ApJ, 366, L61
     %T Adsorption behavior of a textile dye of Reactive Blue 19 from
     aqueous solutions onto modified bentonite   
     %A Gök, Özer; Safa Özcan, A.;Özcan, Adnan
     %P 5439
     %T Seeing Red: Extremely Red Objects from the Cadis K' Survey
     %A Thompson, D.; Beckwith, S. V. W.
     %F Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117
     Heidelberg, Germany
     %P 13
     %B We discuss various interpretations of the nature of extremely red
     objects (EROs), discovered in the first of 7 deep, wide-field K'
     images in the CADIS survey. Point sources with K' = 20.5 mag are
     detected at the 5 sigma level over an area of 125 arcmin^2. A total
     of 20 EROs meeting the selection criteria (R-K') >= 6^{m} and K' <=
     19.75 mag were selected from the data, giving a surface density of
     0.16 +/- 0.04 arcmin^{-2} for all EROs and 0.016 +/- 0.011
     arcmin^{-2} for bright (K' < 19^{m}) EROs.} 
     %T Chandra observations of M31 and their implications for its ISM
     %A Primini, F., Garcia, M., Murray, S., Forman, W., Jones, C., and McClintock, J.
     %F AA(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, USA),
     %AB(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, USA),
     %AC(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, USA),
     %AD(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, USA),
     %AE(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, USA),
     %AF(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, USA) 
     %B We have been regularly observing the bulge and inner disk of M31
     for nearly one year, using both the HRC-I and ACIS-I instruments on
     the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. We present results from our program
     that are of interest to the study of the ISM in M31. In particular,
     we find that the unresolved emission within 3' of the center of M31
     has a distinctly softer spectrum than that of most of the resolved
     X-ray sources in the region. Preliminary spectral analysis of bright
     point sources in the bulge shows no evidence (within the poor
     statistics) for soft spectral components, but does reveal significant
     extra-galactic X-ray extinction (NH ~ 1021 cm-2). We find no new
     X-ray counterparts to supernova remnants to date. 
     %T We Do Not Forget Johannes Kepler
     %A Wszołek, B
     %B Year 2009 was announced as the International Year of
     Astronomy. This was to mark 400th anniversary of the first
     astronomical observation through a telescope by Galileo. From the
     other hand, this year marks 400th anniversary of Astronomia Nova, the
     famous work of Kepler published in Prague in 1609. Two laws of
     planetary motions opened human efforts to understand gravitational
     force; so the overall cosmic space conquest, with its great
     importance not only for astronomy, was developed thankful to Kepler's
     work. This contribution is thought to show the most inspiring ideas
     of Johannes Kepler, published in Astronomia Nova and in other his
     %I PDF: FILE:proc16_02.pdf
    6.6 - Miscellaneous Items

    This section contains information of various kind which may be useful to both ADS users and collaborators.

    6.6.1 - A Few Helpful Hints

    • Accented letters: We currently indicate accented letters by enclosing the following between "&" and ";":
              é == eacute
              ü == uuml
              à == agrave
              ñ == ntilde
       We can also convert the latex equivalent to the html format above:
              é == \'e
              ü == \"u
              à == \`a
              ñ == \~n
    • Bibliographic Codes: Bibliographic codes are in the form: YYYYJJJJJVVVVPPPPPA, where YYYY is the year of publication, JJJJJVVVV is the abbreviation of the conference proceeding, PPPPP is the page number, and A is the first letter of the first author's surname (see Bibcodes )

    For a conference proceeding such as an ASPC conference proceeding or an IAU Symposium, the abbreviation of the conference proceeding is straight-forward (ASPC..117 or IAUS..120). To create the abbreviation for other conference proceedings, we typically take the first letter from the first four words in the title (omitting words like the, a,and, etc). For the volume number, we use conf for abstracts from the conference and proc for the proceedings abstracts. We then end up with an abbreviation such as hgrb.conf for the conference abstracts from "The Huntsville Gamma-Ray Burst Symposium". For the Table of Contents entry, the page number will be ".....". Here is a sample Table of Contents entry:
            %R 1996eds..proc.....L
            %T The Extragalactic Distance Scale, Proceedings of the ST ScI May Symposium
            %A Livio, M.; Donahue, M.; Panagi, N.
            %J The Extragalactic Distance Scale, Proceedings of the ST ScI
               May Symposium, held in Baltimore, MD,
               May 7 - 10, 1996, Eds.: M. Livio, M. Donahue, and N. Panagia,
               Cambridge University Press.
            %D 00/1996

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